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Boson Network Simulator Crack Version 17 !!LINK!! Free


Information on the structure of upper-crustal fault systems and their connection with seismicity is key to the understanding of neotectonic processes. Precisely determined focal depths in combination with structural models can provide important insight into deformation styles of the upper crust (e.g. thin- vs. versus thick-skinned tectonics). Detailed images of seismogenic fault zones in the upper crust, on the other hand, will contribute to the assessment of the hazard related to natural and induced earthquakes, especially in regions targeted for radioactive waste repositories or geothermal energy production. The complex velocity structure of the uppermost crust and unfavorable network geometries, however, often hamper precise locations (i.e. focal depth) of shallow seismicity and therefore limit tectonic interpretations. In this study we present a new high-precision catalog of absolute locations of seismicity in Switzerland. High-quality travel-time data from local and regional earthquakes in the period 2000-2017 are used to solve the coupled hypocenter-velocity structure problem in 1D. For this purpose, the well-known VELEST inversion software was revised and extended to improve the quality assessment of travel-time data and to facilitate the identification of erroneous picks in the bulletin data. Results from the 1D inversion are used as initial parameters for a 3D local earthquake tomography. Well-studied earthquakes and high-quality quarry blasts are used to assess the quality of 1D and 3D relocations. In combination with information available from various controlled-source experiments, borehole data, and geological profiles, focal depths and associated host formations are assessed through comparison with the resolved 3D velocity structure. The new absolute locations and velocity models are used as initial values for relative double-difference relocation of earthquakes in Switzerland. Differential times are calculated from bulletin picks and waveform cross




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Two different methods for retrieving Upper Tropospheric Humidities (UTH) from the TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) instruments aboard NOAA polar orbiting satellites are presented and compared. The first one, from the Environmental Technology Laboratory, computed by J. Bates and D. Jackson (hereafter BJ method), estimates UTH from a simplified radiative transfer analysis of the upper tropospheric infrared water vapor channel at wavelength measured by HIRS (6.3 micrometer). The second one results from a neural network analysis of the TOVS (HIRS and MSU) data developed at, the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (hereafter the 3I (Improved Initialization Inversion) method). Although the two methods give very similar retrievals in temperate regions (30-60 N and S), an absolute bias up to 16% appears in the convective zone of the tropics. The two datasets have also been compared with UTH retrievals from infrared radiance measurements in the 6.3 micrometer channel from the geostationary satellite METEOSAT (hereafter MET method). The METEOSAT retrievals are systematically drier than the TOVS-based results by an absolute bias between 5 and 25%. Despite the biases, the spatial and temporal correlations are very good. The purpose of this study is to explain the deviations observed between the three datasets. The sensitivity of UTH to air temperature and humidity profiles is analysed as are the clouds effects. Overall, the comparison of the three retrievals gives an assessment of the current uncertainties in water vapor amounts in the upper troposphere as determined from NOAA and METEOSAT satellites.


useful in mapping the thickness of the high velocity upper mantle lid because this type of analysis often determines wave speed perturbations from an unknown horizontal average and not absolute velocities. Thus, any feature which extends laterally across the whole region beneath a seismic network becomes invisible in the teleseismic body-wave tomographic image. We compare surface-wave and body-wave tomographic results using southern Africa as an example. Surface-wave tomographic images for southern Africa show a strong, high velocity upper mantle lid confined to depths shallower than 200 km, whereas body-wave tomographic images show weak high velocity in the upper mantle extending to depths of 300 km or more. However, synthetic tests show that these results are not contradictory. The absolute seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle provided by surface wave analysis can be used to map the thermal lithosphere. Priestley and McKenzie (Priestley, K., McKenzie, D., 2006. The thermal structure of the lithosphere from shear wave velocities. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 244, 285-301.) derive an empirical relationship between shear wave velocity and temperature. This relationship is used to obtain temperature profiles from the surface-wave tomographic models of the continental mantle. The base of the lithosphere is shown by a change in the gradient of the temperature profiles indicative of the depth where the mode of heat transport changes from conduction to advection. Comparisons of the geotherms determined from the conversion of surface-wave wave speeds to temperatures with upper mantle nodule-derived geotherms demonstrate that estimates of lithospheric thickness from Vs and from the nodule mineralogy agree to within about 25 km. The lithospheric thickness map for Africa derived from the surface-wave tomographic results shows that thick lithosphere underlies most of the Archean crust in Africa. The distribution of diamondiferous kimberlites provides an


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