The Psychology Of Gender 4th Edition
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The Psychology of Gender 4th Edition
Noted for its fair and equal coverage of men and women, Psychology of Gender reviews the research and issues surrounding gender from multiple perspectives, including psychology, sociology, anthropology, and public health. Going far beyond discussions of biological sex and gender identity, the text explores the roles that society has assigned to females and males and the other variables that co-occur with sex, such as status and gender-related traits. The implications of social roles, status, and gender-related traits for relationships and health are also examined.
The text begins with a discussion of the nature of gender and development of gender roles, before reviewing communication and interaction styles and how they impact our friendships and romantic relationships. It concludes with an exploration of how gender influences both physical and mental health.
G: Gay is an adjective used to describe people who have physical, romantic, and/or emotional attraction to people of the same gender. Historically, the word gay has most often been used to refer to men who are attracted to men. However, it is now common for the word to be used outside of that specific context (The Trevor Project, 2021a).
B: Bisexuality is a sexual orientation used to describe people who have the potential to experience attraction to more than one gender (APA, 2017). People who are bisexual may experience attraction to different genders in different ways and to different degrees. The attraction does not have to be experienced at the same time either. While the etymology of the word suggests that individuals who identify as bisexual are attracted to two genders, it is key to remember that many words were created at times when there was a limited understanding of gender. In its current form, the cultural definition of bisexual does not link attraction to the gender binary. Nonetheless, some people may prefer to identify as pansexual. The Greek prefix pan means all, and some use the term pansexual to describe their attraction to more than one gender. Bisexuality and pansexuality are sometimes used interchangeably, but it is best to listen and use the words that each individual identifies with (The Trevor Project, 2021b).
Gender is not strictly binary and can more accurately be framed as a spectrum or something even more expansive. Some transgender people identify as men or women, but there are also those who identify outside of these binary categories. Some, but not all, nonbinary people also identify as transgender. Some, but not all, nonbinary people use they/them pronouns or other intentionally gender-neutral pronouns. Nonbinary gender identities are not new and have existed in many cultures throughout history. The idea of the gender binary was something imposed on native cultures through colonization during the 15th-19th century (Viverito, n.d.).
In 2 studies, paternalistic and envious gender stereotypes were examined. Paternalistic stereotypes portray particular female or male subgroups as warm but not competent, whereas envious stereotypes depict some other female or male subgroups as competent but not warm. A total of 134 women and 82 men, primarily White and middle class, participated in this research. Building on the stereotype content model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002), Study 1 tested the mixed-stereotypes hypothesis that many gender subgroups are viewed as high on either competence or warmth but low on the other. Study 2 additionally addressed the social-structural hypothesis that status predicts perceived competence and interdependence predicts perceived warmth. The results provided strong support for both hypotheses.
Prepare and practice for the AP Psychology Exam. Now aligned to the new Course and Exam Description the multiple-choice questions in the fourth edition include only four answer choices and offer more stimulus-based questions, and question sets.
With support from National Science Foundation grants, Myers' scientific articles have appeared in three dozen scientific periodicals, including Science, American Scientist, Psychological Science, and the American Psychologist. In addition to his scholarly writing and his textbooks for introductory and social psychology, he also digests psychological science for the general public. His writings have appeared in four dozen magazines, from Today's Education to Scientific American. He has authored five general audience books, including The Pursuit of Happiness and Intuition: Its Powers and Perils. And he blogs about psychology and life at TalkPsych.com.
Elizabeth Yost Hammer is the director of the Center for the Advancement of Teaching and Faculty Development and a Kellogg professor in teaching at Xavier University of Louisiana. Her work in the center includes organizing pedagogical workshops and faculty development initiatives for instructors, both new and seasoned, and thinking generally about teaching and learning. Yet her favorite part of her job is in the classroom, trying out new teaching innovations. She is a recipient of the College of Arts & Sciences Excellence in Teaching Award, and received an XU Girls Rock! Award from Xavier students. She regularly teaches introductory psychology, research methods, health psychology, and human sexuality.
Liz received her Ph.D. in social psychology from Tulane University in 1994. Her research interests focus on the scholarship of teaching and learning, and she has contributed to books intended to enhance teaching preparation, including The Oxford Handbook of Psychology Education, Hot Topics: Best Practices in Teaching Controversial Issues in Psychology, and Effective College and University Teaching: Strategies and Tactics for the New Professoriate. In addition, Liz has published in Teaching of Psychology, for which she has served as consulting editor, and a special teaching-related issue of the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.
Liz is married to Elliott Hammer, who is also a psychology professor and is involved in AP psychology. They and their two rescue dogs work and play in New Orleans, Louisiana. They maintain their mental health by spending time camping and hiking in a national park every summer.
Gender dysphoria (formerly known as gender identity disorder in the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM) is defined by strong, persistent feelings of identification with another gender and discomfort with one's own assigned gender and sex; in order to qualify for a diagnosis of gender dysphoria, these feelings must cause significant distress or impairment. People with gender dysphoria often desire to live in accordance with their gender identity and may dress and use mannerisms associated with the gender with which they identify in order to achieve this goal.
Gender identity incongruence and the feelings of distress that indicate gender dysphoria can be present in children, adolescents, or adults, and can manifest differently across age groups. A child who is assigned one gender may express the wish to be a different gender, state that they are, or assert that they will grow up to be. They may also prefer the clothing, hairstyles, or toys typically associated with the other gender and may demonstrate intense negative reactions when adults in their life attempt to have them wear clothing associated with their assigned gender. Additionally, some children will show discomfort with their physical sex characteristics.
Gender dysphoria in adults and children is considered a disorder if the person also experiences significant distress or impairment in major areas of life as a result of the incongruence. Identifying with a gender different from the one that was assigned is not a mental disorder in itself. There is debate in the field as to whether this experience should be classified as a mental illness.
Those with gender dysphoria unfortunately experience substance-related disorders, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts more commonly than those in the general population. After gender transition occurs, suicide risk may dissipate or persist, depending on the adjustment of the individual. Children with gender dysphoria may manifest coexisting separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or symptoms of depression. Adults may display anxiety and depressive symptoms as well.
Gender dysphoria looks different in different age groups. According to the DSM-5, health professionals deciding whether to diagnose gender dysphoria in children, adolescents, and adults should look for the presence of the following symptoms:
Some psychologists and activists believe that the diagnosis of gender dysphoria should be removed from the DSM because being transgender is a social identity rather than a mental illness, that the label may contribute to stigma towards trans people, and that the diagnosis echoes the previous classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder.
Cross-gender behaviors can begin as early as 2 years old, which is the start of the developmental period in which children begin expressing gendered behaviors and interests. Early-onset gender dysphoria typically starts in childhood and continues into adolescence and adulthood; late-onset gender dysphoria, on the other hand, occurs around puberty or much later in life.
Individual and family counseling is recommended for children with gender dysphoria, while individual and/or couples therapy is recommended for adults. Hormone therapy and gender confirmation surgery are options, but they are not desired by every individual, and feelings of distress may continue after this treatment. These possibilities should be discussed in psychotherapy. 041b061a72